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Mu, F. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Le Corbusier Toward an Architecture. Hoach co ban phat trine khu vuc song Hong Shi, T. Oriented Agriculture in the Philippines and Practice — Turnhout: Brepoels. Osborne, M. Case Studies from the Mekong and Unwin. Main Report, November. Delta, Coll. Final Report, Hanoi. Ratmalana: Sarvodaya. Ouyyanont, P. Sin, S. Jomehpour, M. Buhmann, S. Ervin and M. Pietsch eds.

Living Systems. Basel: Birkhauser. McHarg, I. Concept and Ideas. Bogor: Banjarmasin Li, T. Concept and Ideas Competition. Jumsai, S. Bangkok: Kasetsart in Siam and the West Pacific. Singapore: nomic History of Cochinchina — Oxford University Press. London: G. Needham, J. Cambridge: Ouyyanont, P. Dependency, — Ginsburg, B. Koppel and Diagnosis and Recommendations for view Press.

Over Van den Heuvel, Ch. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. His research focusses on landscape doctorate from Tokyo University, and served Since , he has been an assistant Tillema, H. His main research top- — Zutphen: Walburg Persd. Tillema, H. He was also from vernacular wisdom and architecture of Gravenhage. Unpublished Master Yu, K. Tomita, Y. Chen H. Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. She University, an M. Aerial portraits of Taiwan. His received a Master in Urban Architectural and a Ph. Tran, H. In the past 50 years, Hanoi was filled up Company.

Reclaiming Waterscapes. Currently, she currently ization and Food and Agricultural Organiza- lished design proposal.

She is an Olmsted Fellow Wilson, E. New York: United Nations. The Geo-Body of a Nation. Report no. New Haven: Yale University Press. Thomas Jr. He has also held positions scape Architecture at Peking University. As such, he has been working — Department of Architecture, Urbanism and Wageningen.

Van Beeck, S. Laura Rijsbosch studied architecture at the Kongjian Yu received his D. Through his research Van den Berghe, G. Mellon University, the Berlage Institute and cal infrastructure across scales, particularly in L. Sloos ed.

Boeken met krijgshistorie: Fall —Spring in collaboration University of Leuven. She is presently teach- water associated landscapes in China, and op verkenning in het oudste boekbezit van Wyatt, D. He is currently teaching Academie, 1— Gudio Geenen the University of Leuven. Nielsen ; below M. Kleppe ; left K. Kleppe ; RUA ; top to bottom: M. Kleppe ; L. Kleppe ; A. Pousi ; A. Ahi ; left top K. Shan- under: Vrooman, D.

Map of the city and entire suburbs of Canton, cartographic material, De Meulder ; right middle B. De Meulder ; K. Shannon ; both B. Kleppe , , K. Shannon ; above K. Nagels ; below left I. McGrath from Y. Takaya, ;below adapted from B. McGrath from R. Hubbard and J. Hafner, ; 54 T. Tachakitkachorn et al. English , Fig. Bonine , Fig. Girot ; left P. Hafner, ; , Fig. Girot ; , English , Fig. Zhuang et al. Vingboons circa.

Despite the recent advances in surgical procedures and chemotherapy, recurrence is still reported in a large number of patients with GC even after curative resection. Therefore, to improve the survival outcomes of GC, it is important to identify patients with a high risk of GC recurrence who need to be treated with adequate adjuvant treatments and meticulous surveillance even after curative gastrectomy.

Neutrophil Neut , lymphocyte Lymp , monocyte Mono , and platelet Plt counts in the peripheral blood were previously shown to be convenient and helpful prognostic indicators of GC [ 4 — 6 ]. A systemic immune-inflammation index SII , readily calculated by the combination of three complete blood count CBC parameters Neut, Lymp, and Plt , has recently been attracting increasing attention as a powerful prognostic indicator in several malignancies, such as esophageal, colon, and pancreatic cancers [ 7 — 9 ]; however, the clinical utility of SII in GC remains unclear.

The aim of the present study was to establish a novel perioperative care system according to preoperative SII levels. A total of patients who underwent surgery for GC between January and June at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine were included in the present study.

The inclusion criteria were as follows: 1 patients pathologically diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma; 2 patients with pathological stages pStage I, II, and III; and 3 patients undergoing the curative resection of GC R0. Patients with missing information on preoperative CBC and those with simultaneous malignancies other than GC were also excluded.

Tumor staging was performed according to the 8th edition of the Tumor, Node, Metastasis staging classification by the Union for International Cancer Control [ 11 ]. In the present study, grade 2 or higher postoperative complications according to the Clavien-Dindo Classification [ 12 , 13 ] occurred in 60 patients All patients provided written informed consent before surgery.

The following clinicopathological data were reviewed from the medical record database of our institution: age, sex, body mass index BMI , physical status PS , comorbidities hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and chronic renal failure , tumor location, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen CEA , cancer antigen CA , albumin, C-reactive protein CRP , preoperative CBC Neut, Lymp, Mono, and Plt , pathological T stage pT , pathological N stage pN , lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and tumor differentiation.

After curative gastrectomy for GC, patients with pStage I generally received postoperative examinations alone without any adjuvant treatments.

Most patients were postoperatively followed up for 5 years or until their death. GC recurrence was confirmed by imaging, such as CT and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. If possible, recurrence was histologically confirmed via surgical biopsy, needle biopsy, or appropriate fluid cytology. Peritoneal recurrence was diagnosed by imaging alone, and diagnostic laparotomy was rarely performed. Differences between the two groups for categorical and continuous variables were analyzed by the chi-squared test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively.

The optimal cutoff value for each immune-nutritional parameter Neut, Lymp, Mono, Plt, or SII was selected according to the receiver operating characteristic ROC curve for overall survival OS with the maximal Youden index based on the sum of sensitivity and specificity [ 17 , 18 ].

The cutoff values for serum albumin and CRP were set at 3. OS and recurrence-free survival RFS were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences between the two groups were assessed with the log-rank test. In one model model 1 , Neut, Lymp, or Plt was separately incorporated as explanatory variables.

The median range values were —15, for Neut, — for Lymp, 50— for Mono, As shown in Fig. Survival curves of patients stratified by preoperative SII. B RFS. GC recurrence was detected in 51 out of patients. Cumulative recurrence rates stratified by preoperative SII were examined according to the type of GC recurrence peritoneal, hematogenous, and lymph node recurrence Fig.

Cumulative recurrence rate for each recurrence pattern stratified by preoperative SII. A Peritoneal recurrence. B Lymph node recurrence. C Hematogenous recurrence. In the present study, we examined the clinical significance of preoperative SII to predict postoperative survival outcomes in GC.

Of special note was that high SII correlated with peritoneal recurrence. These results suggested that preoperative SII may contribute to perioperative precise care and adjuvant treatments for patients with GC undergoing curative gastrectomy. A relationship was previously suggested between obesity and chronic inflammation [ 21 ]; therefore, patients with high BMI may have a stronger inflammatory response.

In cancer patients, inflammation is induced by inflammatory cytokines as cancer progresses, and, thus, patients with a high inflammatory response may lose weight [ 22 ].

In the present study, high SII correlated with low albumin levels, suggesting that cachexia had an influence on the results obtained. Hirahara et al. In addition, several indexes calculated by combining these factors, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, have been used to predict survival outcomes of GC [ 30 — 32 ].

Accordingly, high SII, resulting from neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytosis, may also be a useful prognostic indicator. The negative impact of postoperative complications on survival outcomes has recently been clarified [ 33 , 34 ]. Accordingly, worse OS may be attributed to a higher incidence of postoperative complications. However, in the present study, the incidence of postoperative complications of Clavien-Dindo grade II or higher in the high SII group was Correlations between preoperative inflammatory indices and the occurrence of postoperative complications remain controversial [ 35 , 36 ], and, thus, further studies are needed to confirm these relationships.

Previous studies demonstrated the negative impact of high preoperative SII on the survival outcomes of GC [ 23 , 37 , 38 ]; however, the cutoff values of SII differed between these studies.

Wang et al. In the present study, although an ROC curve analysis was also used, the optimal cutoff value of SII for predicting OS was , which was markedly lower than Although Wang et al.

Similar to the present results, Shi et al. Its a set of technical resources that will help our staff to promote and support accessibility and inclusion across our programmes and operations.

We invite UNICEF colleagues and partners to apply this guidance in their work, to ensure that construction related to our programmes, such as school buildings, health clinics, water and sanitation facilities, are free of environmental barriers.

This Accessibility Toolkit is an important resource to help us deliver on this commitment, respecting and promoting diversity, equity and inclusion in programmes and operations across the organization. In , a staff survey on accessibility of UNICEF programmes and premises revealed that 84 per cent of offices required awareness-raising materials and technical capacity on accessibility. In a follow-up All-Staff Survey in , only 39 per cent of respondents deemed their office space was physically accessible for persons with disabilities.

To address the growing internal demand for resources to improve our office buildings, we established a Greening and Accessibility Fund, developed guidance to support renovations for environmentally friendly and accessible premises and set up the Environmental Footprint and Accessibility Assessment Tool EFAAT.

Data as of shows us that 52 per cent of UNICEF premises meet level 1, the minimum organisational requirements for accessibility. But we can do better, and we must do better.

Individual emergency shelters tents. Individual temporary shelters. Collective shelters. Water points. Toilets and latrines. Distribution sites. Accessible hygiene promotion sessions and materials. Early warning systems. Community evacuation shelter identification and preparation. Evacuation plan.

Introduction to the toolkitThis toolkit was developed so the work of UNICEF programmes can support children like nine-year-old Amal, a girl with a physical disability who lives in Zaatari camp and who can now play with other children because the local playground has been made accessible to all. It can support children like Frinpali, a seven-year-old boy who uses a wheelchair and now receives appropriate education in Burkina Faso because his school has been made accessible.

This toolkit has been conceived as an instrument to facilitate the dialogue with partners and the involvement of organizations of persons with disabilities OPDs on accessibility-related issues. And it has been developed with UNICEFs current and future employees with disabilities and other organizations in mind, so that the facilities they work in are made more accessible and inclusive for all.

Nine-year-old Amal plays on the seesaw in the new inclusive playground in her school in Zaatari refugee camp, Jordan where she is in third grade. It facilitates dialogue with partners, including OPDs on accessible construction. Frinpali, a 7 year old boy who is using a wheelchair, and his friend Hassan at the playground of their school in Fada, in eastern Burkina Faso. Advocacy for accessibility: suggestions on how to advocate for accessibility and how to address common objections and preconceived ideas Section B.

Programme-related buildings: an overview of accessibility issues in programme-related activities and in managing accessibility activities at the programme level Section C. Accessibility in emergencies: an overview of how accessibility should be taken into account in emergencies and disaster preparedness Section D.

Accessibility assessments: insight on how to conduct accessibility assessments regardless of the specific circumstances Section F. Organization of accessible events: suggestions on how to organize accessible events Section G. Accessibility checklists: 17 checklists to use during accessibility assessments Toolbox: a repository of useful tools, documents and examples for accessibility activities, such as terms of reference or samples of assessment reports This Accessibility Toolkit offers information on how to build or adapt infrastructure both in UNICEF-supported programmes and in UNICEF premises, for use by all, including persons with disabilities.

Its contents can also be applied to non-UNICEF construction processes and facilities as it takes into consideration international standards. The guidance provided can be used to enhance and promote accessibility when planning and designing the new construction of programme facilities and infrastructure both in development and humanitarian contexts, and when upgrading or adapting existing infrastructure.

To summarize, information can be used at different points in the accessibility journey, such as: 1. Planning and designing programme-related facilities 3. Remodelling, renovating, extending or repairing programme-related facilities and premises 5. Selecting facilities for leasing, renting or hosting conferences and events 6.

Managing and setting up humanitarian and emergency programmes 7. Preparing construction contracts and agreements 8. Monitoring and evaluating projects involving construction, renovation or repairs 9. Conducting accessibility assessments of existing facilities or premises Advocating for accessibility with donors and partners The personnel may include people who are in charge of security at entrances and at the reception and of facilities management, as well as those involved in emergency evacuation, etc.

While this toolkit addresses issues related to physical accessibility, simultaneous actions are also required to sensitize and train key personnel on the inclusion of persons with disabilities. This toolkit contributes to the implementation of the United Nations Disability Inclusion Strategy and helps to achieve and exceed most of the strategys indicators: lack of physical accessibility, specifically recognized as one of the barriers to inclusion in Indicator 6 on Accessibility, 6.

The toolkit helps to report on United Nations Country Team scorecards and to build the capacity of implementing partners on accessibility.

He is in class 5 and his dream is to become a photographer. It was adopted on 13 December and describes human rights frameworks linked to accessibility, aspects of universal design, reasonable accommodation and international standards for accessibility. The accessibility of spaces and places determines the extent to which everyone including persons with disabilities, older persons and children can live, work and learn independently and participate fully and equally in society.

Equal access to transportation, media, information and communication technologies, and public services and facilities, such as schools, libraries and town halls, facilitates the participation of persons with disabilities, in both urban and rural communities. Accessibility is also critical in emergency contexts, such as refugee camps, to ensure access to humanitarian services and facilities. As of October , countries have ratified the CRPD and, increasingly, countries around the world have adopted standards, codes and laws to mandate accessibility, in line with CRPD requirements.

Accessibility is one of the primary principles of the CRPD, set out in article3 as a vital precondition for the effective and equal enjoyment of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights for persons with disabilities, for example to health, education, information and communication. Other CRPD articles related to accessibility are article 9: Accessibility; article Living independently and being included in the community; article Education; and article Participation in cultural life, recreation, leisure and sport.

Universal design In the s, the American architect Ron Mace coined the term universal design, which means good design that benefits everyone. The concept of universal design applies to almost every area of life. While this toolkit focuses on the accessibility of infrastructure and spaces, the concept also applies to many other areas, programmes and services, such as mobility e.

While it is emphasized in all four pillars, accessibility is included also in specific dedicated Indicator 6. The accessibility continuum The accessibility continuum is a concept that describes the experience of children, adults with disabilities and older persons departing from their homes, using pathways, crossing roads and taking transportation to reach, enter and use services and facilities.

These facilities can be libraries, public meeting halls, sports fields, health care facilities, courthouses, marketplaces, conference rooms, office buildings, etc. A continuous route means that circulating through it is safe, unrestricted and possible using a wheelchair, a walking frame or a service dog, with no obstacles or barriers blocking the way.

Such a route must be continuous because, like in a chain, if one link is broken, the chain is compromised. Four steps ensure the accessibility continuum: reaching a facility; entering a facility; moving around a facility; and using specific features of a facility. At least 10 common pitfalls can be avoided or remedied, often at low or no cost, to achieve an accessibility continuum.

Entrances have steps only Install a ramp or consider a lifting platform 3. Ramps are installed but they are steep and unsafe Consider going beyond the standards and applying recommended values for a gentle ramp slope the less steep the better, even if local regulations allow steeper slopes 4.

An accessible typical building plan is used but the specifications have not been tailored to the actual context, so the slope is steeper or the entrance path is dangerously slanted such that a wheelchair could fall sideways or backwards Always take the actual environment into consideration, even when using a standard building plan; the nature and topography of the area might affect the accessibility of the overall design 6.

Accessible toilets exist but they are used as storage space or kept locked, so they are unusable Raise awareness of the need for accessible toilets to always be available, without needing to request access or having to move things out of toilets 8. The pathway leading to the playground or office is accessible and safe but there is fixed furniture at arrival, so persons using a wheelchair do not have room to use the table or area Use light furniture that can be moved easily or, where furniture is fixed, make sure that it meets measurements that allow comfortable access and usability, including for persons using a wheelchair or who are blind The building, pathways and toilets are physically accessible for persons using a wheelchair but no clear, large signs indicate orientation, so the main buildings and features are difficult to identify and reach Use clear, large-font, easy-to-read wayfinding signs with high visual contrast and pictograms to make it easy for people to navigate through venues and spaces without having to ask for assistance Other considerations to promote inclusion include: Welcoming, respectful attitudes If a school is physically accessible but the teacher has a negative, discriminatory attitude and does not want to teach a child with a disability, unless the teachers attitude is changed, the childs access to education will be limited.

Attitudes can be improved through role models, interaction with other teachers and students with disabilities, experiential training or campaigns, and programmes to transform harmful social norms. Some of these gaps can be filled through access to reasonable accommodation.

Technical accessibility standards Many of the technical specifications in this toolkit are based on International Organization for Standardization ISO standards, developed by a committee of experts. In particular, ISO Building construction Accessibility and usability of the built environment applies to construction and the modification of new and existing buildings and is available to UNICEF staff via the Supply Division.

Related ISO standards cover accessible lifts , emergencies , assistive devices such as tactile walking surface indicators and graphical symbols for public information and accessibility Some of the common global symbols used for accessibility are available in the Toolbox. While dimensions in the standard are geared primarily towards adults, it also recognizes that people across age levels have different needs, so it incorporates, for example, accessibility in toilets designed for children.

In addition, accessibility for children is considered in this toolkit based on other existing guidelines and principles. The New Urban Agenda commits governments to promoting: quality public spaces that are safe, inclusive, accessible and green accessible and well-connected infrastructure adequate investments in protective, accessible and sustainable infrastructure and service provision systems The New Urban Agenda emphasizes the importance of process and implementation in a participatory manner, which considers innovative, resource-efficient, accessible, context-specific and culturally sensitive sustainable solutions.

The policy establishes the highest levels of commitment and a vision for the United Nations system on disability inclusion for the next decade, and aims to create an institutional framework for the implementation of the CRPD and the Agenda for Sustainable Development, among other international human rights instruments and development and humanitarian commitments.

The accountability framework tracks the implementation of the policy for the entire system. It facilitates the assessment of progress and gaps in the work of the United Nations on mainstreaming disability inclusion with a view to advancing system-wide planning and action, promoting synergies and reducing duplication.

Each component includes a set of common system indicators focused on four core areas: leadership, strategic planning and management; inclusiveness; programming; and organizational culture. While it is emphasized in all four pillars, accessibility is included also in a specific dedicated indicator. This directive requires UNICEF to adopt accessibility and universal design in all projects with governments and partners across all programme areas, and applies to all new construction, remodelling, extensions or repairs both in development and humanitarian contexts.

As stated in the directive, Accessibility is an enabler that allows children and adults with disabilities to enjoy their rights and entitlements. It is also a precondition for children and adults with disabilities to live independently and participate fully and equally in society.

The GrAF was established in , generated by a 3 per cent air travel surcharge, with 2 per cent of the fund to be used to finance eco-efficiency projects and 1 per cent to be used for accessibility projects see also Section D of the toolkit.

Accessibility is an enabler that allows children and adults with disabilities to enjoy their rights and entitlements. Even though frameworks and guidelines take diversity more and more into consideration, disaster management and humanitarian assistance are often designed to provide standardized solutions to an affected community without sufficient regard for the needs of diverse populations, such as persons with disabilities and older people, among other groups.

This gap must be filled to ensure assistance to all, without discrimination and on an equal basis. As a condition for inclusion, accessibility needs to be addressed as a core component of disaster risk management and humanitarian action. Part 1 addresses the overarching aspects of accessibility in emergencies, such as the general principles and frameworks to be followed, the main stakeholders to be involved, data and approaches.

Part 2 focuses on the identification of barriers and the main recommendations for typical humanitarian facilities inside and outside camp settings: shelters; water, sanitation and hygiene WASH infrastructure; community buildings; distribution sites; etc. It also provides recommendations pertaining to communication-related accessibility measures, for example during hygiene promotion sessions.

Part 3 provides an overview of how to address accessibility and participation during common activities and phases of humanitarian interventions. Elisa Stoquim, 14, does homework outside of her house that was destroyed during Cyclone Idai in Beira, Mozambique. Elisa has a physical disability and uses a crutch to walk. Inclusion in humanitarian action is therefore a larger concept than accessibility. It concerns, for example: Ensuring the meaningful participation of persons with disabilities and their families in all phases of humanitarian programmes Coordinating with organizations of persons with disabilities OPDs Ensuring equal access to services to everyone, no matter their abilities Taking into account the carers and family members of persons with disabilities Safa, 10, does her homework with the help of Abed Elmajeed Noaimi, UNICEF, and her father and siblings in Azraq refugee camp, Jordan.

Strengthening the capacity of humanitarian workers to design and implement inclusive humanitarian programmes Collecting and using disaggregated data about disability to ensure the inclusive design and implementation of humanitarian actions This section does not address the whole topic of inclusion in humanitarian action and disaster risk reduction but focuses specifically on how accessibility should be taken into account in all the phases of the programming and in various emergency contexts.

Accessibility in emergency contexts According to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs OCHA , in , million people will need humanitarian assistance and protection. This number has risen to 1 in 33 people worldwide a significant increase from 1 in 45 at the launch of the Global Humanitarian Overview , which at that time was already the highest figure in decades. They are often excluded from humanitarian assistance and denied opportunities to participate in emergency response, recovery and rebuilding efforts.

Extending World Health Organization WHO estimates,12 approximately 15 per cent of this population lives with some form of disability.

They face higher risks in conflict situations and natural disasters. Research shows that the mortality rate among persons with disabilities tends to be two to four times higher than among the general population, as demonstrated in cases with disabilities are disproportionately more likely to be left behind in emergency responses and to fail to benefit from humanitarian services due to ability range of environmental, physical and social barriers.

A recent study has confirmed that three-quarters of persons with disabilities do not have adequate access to basic assistance, such as water, shelter or food, in a crisis situation. Half of the persons with disabilities being surveyed also reported no access to disability-specific services, such as rehabilitation or assistive devices. Annex 3 contains a detailed description of parameters. Figure 3: Dimensions selected for multi-dimensional child deprivation analysis by age group Table 2: Dimensions, indicators, and deprivation thresholds by age.

The reports outline UNICEF South Africa’s achievements and remaining challenges towards creating a healthy and happy future and delivering on our mandate to leave no child behind. National expenditure on education in was 2. The 2. There is a significant gender disparity at birth, with a sex ratio at birth of boys per girls. The conflict in and around the Nagorny Karabakh region of the Azerbaijan Republic,8 which has resulted in the displacement of over 1 million people 9 from approximately 20 per cent of Azerbaijani territory, has left many displaced families vulnerable, most of which include children and young people.

Since independence in , Azerbaijan has made progress in improving the health of its children. The official United Nations under-five mortality rate fell from 38 per 1, live births in to 22 in , the infant mortality rate fell from 32 to 19 per 1, live births and the neonatal mortality rate decreased from 20 to 11 per 1, live births.

Azerbaijan has sustained high rates of child immunization; overall immunization levels are 90 per cent among children under the age of 5 years. However, in 2 per cent of districts overall immunization rates are below 80 per cent. Azerbaijan faces a double burden of malnutrition, with 18 per cent of children under age 5 affected by stunting as high as 28 per cent in the lowest income groups while 14 per cent of children under age 5 are either obese or overweight, signifying poor diet during childrens early years.

Only 12 per cent of infants are exclusively breastfed and only 1 in 3 children under the age of 2 benefit from minimum dietary diversity. Azerbaijan is taking several important steps towards adopting a social model approach to child disabilities and developmental delays. Included in these steps is the introduction by the Ministry of Health of multidisciplinary teams to support children with cognitive and intellectual developmental delays detected through primary health – care centres.

Forty per cent of new cases of disability among children are registered between ages 03 years,14 enabling early introduction of individual care plans and mitigating the impact of the disability in some cases. However, the focus on a purely medical assessment of the disability means the number of cases of child disability and developmental delays may be underestimated. The overall enrolment rate of children aged 15 years in both public and private preschool institutions was Primary school net enrolment, based on national definitions, was Of some 54, school-aged children registered with disabilities in , based on a purely medical classification, 14, were enrolled in certain forms of special education as defined by national legislation.

Children in Azerbaijan can expect to complete When adjusted for quality of learning, this is equivalent to just 8. Among the economically active population, the unemployment rate for young people aged years was There is increased focus within the national development agenda on ensuring young people are equipped to participate in a modern workplace, through a mix of academic, vocational and foundational skills.

An online survey of young people found that more than half of respondents believed there to be a large mismatch between their educational outcomes and their current jobs. The number of children in residential insti tutions fell over the last decade. In there were 11, children recorded in institutional care, compared with 13, in More than half of women and more than two thirds of men in Azerbaijan reported enduring parental physical punishment as children.

And 1 in 3 men have admitted inflicting physical violence on women; nearly three quarters of men have admitted to psychologically abusing a partner. Measures introduced by the Government have resulted in a dramatic decrease in the number of girls married before the age of 18 years from more than 5, in to just in An integrated social services initiative modelled in with support from UNICEF demonstrated how a coordinated system of identification of children at risk, referrals to specialist services and improved case management can enable agencies to reach more vulnerable children with a customized package of care.

The decentralized nature of the model also enabled direct outreach to vulnerable families during the coronavirus disease COVID pandemic in The number of qualified social workers equipped to support vulnerable and at – risk children remains low. In , there were only 15 social work graduates working as advisors with the government Agency for Sustainable and Operational Social Security to support vulnerable families. Following reforms in social services systems and building on the success of the UNICEF-supported model the Social Services Agency of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Population expects to recruit another 20 social workers in Several government working groups have assessed the socioeconomic impact of the COVID pandemic, to inform targeting of resources and services that will address emerging needs among existing and newly vulnerable families.

The last capacity assessment of communication for behavioural and social change, undertaken in , identified specific gaps in design, management and monitoring of strategic communication plans at the institutional level. There is still no overarching institutional approach to increasing capacity for transforming behaviours in Azerbaijan. There is also an absence of key principles, approaches, methodologies and tools for systematic communication for behavioural and social change.

The Government of Azerbaijan established the National Coordination Council for Sustainable Development in to prioritize, coordinate and monitor efforts to achieve nationalized Sustainable Development Goals. This commitment to a national sustainable development agenda has been articulated in two Voluntary National Review submissions since However, of nationalized indicators for these goals, data are available for only Further analysis to identify the most vulnerable populations and factors contributing to vulnerability is constrained as data does not yet fully provided the disaggregation level required.

A proposed state programme for improvement of statistics31 is expected to allocate significantly higher resources for modernization of statistical reporting. Azerbaijan has drafted an action plan for implementing its national children strategy Budgeting for children can still be improved, and there is a need for more disaggregated data analysis focusing on deprivations.

A decree on unified budget classification was adopted in It is expected that the implementation of the countrys Strategic Roadmap for National Economy Perspective of the Republic of Azerbaijan will make use of a medium-term expenditure framework linking economic policy more closely to budget planning and processes, and to medium- and long-term sustainability of the State budget.

This has the potential to improve the focus and strategic alignment of policies and public financing for children. Programme priorities and partnerships The overarching vision of the country programme, is that girls and boys in Azerbaijan, from conception to adolescence, and especially those who are most vulnerable, survive and thrive to their optimal potential : healthy, well-nourished, with better learning outcomes and knowledge and skills required in the twenty-first century, and protected from all forms of violence, exploitation and abuse, resulting in a smooth transition to adulthood.

Thomas , MS, d Peter L. Baeten , MD, PhD k, l. Lindsey E. Katherine K. Peter L. Jared M. Find articles by Jared M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received May 28; Accepted Oct Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. Abstract Objective: To present detailed analyses of long-term pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP use and associated behaviors and perceptions among young Kenyan women. Design: Prospective, observational cohort. Conclusions: PrEP adherence was modest and declined over time.

Study Procedures We followed participants prospectively for a 2-year period ending on March 27, Table 1. Participant Characteristics at Baseline. Open in a separate window.

PrEP Adherence We analyzed total person-years of follow-up. TABLE 2. Bold indicates concordance between the two adherence measures.

TABLE 3. TABLE 4. In: Cohen B, Trussell J, editors. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women. N Engl J Med. Tenofovir-based preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women. How Long Will They Take it? PrEP uptake, persistence, adherence, and effect of retrospective drug level feedback on PrEP adherence among young women in southern Africa: results from HPTN , a randomized controlled trial.

Plos Med. Integrating preexposure prophylaxis delivery in routine family planning clinics: a feasibility programmatic evaluation in Kenya.

PLoS Med. HIV Research for Prevention. Abstract PE Practical and conceptual challenges in measuring antiretroviral adherence. Kagee A, Nel A. Assessing the association between self-report items for HIV pill adherence and biological measures.

AIDS Care. Defining success with HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: a prevention-effective adherence paradigm. Use of a risk scoring tool to identify higher-risk HIV-1 serodiscordant couples for an antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention intervention. BMC Infect Dis. US Public Health Service. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Safety of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis use in lactating HIV-uninfected women.

Expert Opin Drug Saf. Lancet HIV. Research electronic data capture REDCap –a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. J Biomed Inform. Bronfenbrenner U.


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Танкадо приближается справа, Халохот – между деревьев слева. – У нас почти не осталось времени, – сказал Фонтейн.  – Давайте ближе к сути дела. Агент Колиандер нажал несколько кнопок, и кадры стали сменяться быстрее. Люди на подиуме с нетерпением ждали, когда на экране появится их бывший сослуживец Энсей Танкадо.


(PDF) Water Urbanisms East | Kelly Shannon – replace.me


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